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Fortified Food

Article source:Zhengzhou Friend Biological Engineering Co., Ltd. popularity:Published time:2016/4/13 10:40:50

1. Introduction

Fortified Food means "to increase nutrients into food natural or synthetic natural nutrients belong to food additives." ( "Food Sanitation Law" Article 54) requires the fortified foods include population generally insufficient supply, or due to geographical factors regional deficiency, or due to changes in the living environment, caused by physiological conditions for the supply of certain nutrients with special needs nutrients [1].

To enhance the nutritional content of foods and added natural or artificial and natural nutrients belong to food additives. Food contains a variety of nutrients, but different species, their distribution and content is not the same. In addition, in the production, processing and preservation of food in the process, often suffer loss of nutrients. To supplement the nutrients in food, improve the nutritional value of food to meet the needs of different groups, you can add food nutrition fortifier. Food nutrition fortifier dietary both simplified process to facilitate feeding and disease prevention and health effects.

2, classification

In China, the conventional divided into four categories:

(A) minerals: calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, copper, manganese, chromium, strontium, vanadium

(B) vitamins: VA, VD, VE, VC, VB Group (VB1, VB2, VB3, VB5, VB6, VB12), folic acid, biotin, etc.

(Iii) amino acids: taurine and other 18 kinds of essential amino acids

(Iv) other nutrients substances: DHA, AA, oligosaccharides, dietary fiber, prebiotics, lecithin, nucleotides, CPP, choline, carnitine, etc.

3, nutritional supplements enhanced method

(1) in the feed or food necessary to add: such as flour, cereals, rice, drinking water, salt, etc., this enhancer have some degree of loss.

(2) in food processing to add: This is the method most commonly used to strengthen the food, all kinds of milk, candy, cakes, baked goods, baby food, beverage cans, adopted this approach, when using this method to pay attention develop appropriate technology to ensure the stability enhancer;

(3) in the finished product is added: In order to reduce the loss enhancer damage during handling and processing of unprocessed feedstock can be taken in the final step of the finished product was added approach. Milk, a variety of food prepared and compressed food and some military food have adopted this approach.

(4) Add Biological approaches: first make bioavailability enhancer to be absorbed, making it a biological organism, then supplements containing biological organisms such as processed products, or the direct consumption, such as iodine eggs, milk, rich selenium and other food, you can also use other methods to get the fermentation, fermentation products such as vitamins.

(5) The physical and chemical methods to add: for example, ultraviolet irradiation of milk to make one of ergosterol into vitamin D.

4, added in the form of

(1) dry mixing;

(2) to form a solution, emulsion or suspension dispersion added;

(3) added to the diet or join appliance for edible flora and fauna habitat conditions.

5, the significance of food fortification

Food fortification originally as a public health solutions to problems raised. Food fortification overall goal is to ensure that people get the full reasonable nutrition at each stage of growth and development and a variety of working conditions, to meet the needs of normal human physiology, life and work to maintain and improve human health.

(1) make up the defects of natural food, it tends to balance human nutrition natural food, hardly a pure food to meet all the nutritional needs of the body, due to the variety and harvest food production and dietary habits of peoples, regions, life limit level, and so rarely make the daily diet contains all the nutrients, often have deficiencies of certain nutrients on. According to nutrition survey, around the general lack of vitamin B2, consumption of refined white rice, refined flour regional lack of vitamin B1, fruit and vegetable areas often lack vitamin C deficiency, iodine deficiency often Mainland. If these problems can be targeted by fortified base to solve local diet can reduce and prevent the occurrence of diseases and enhance human health.

Reason: dietary habits, regional food varieties, production and living standards in different areas of food and nutrition is different.

(2) to make up for the loss of nutrients to maintain the nutritional properties of natural food in the food processing, storage and transportation often lose some nutrients. Such as refined flour of vitamin B1 has lost a considerable proportion of the same raw material, due to different processing methods, the loss of its nutrients are also different. In actual production, we should try to reduce food losses during processing.

(3) special populations food. In order to achieve some special diet food and health needs, require special add some nutrients, the content of certain nutrients in food than normal for some special people eat.

(4) to simplify dietary treatment, due to natural increase convenience of a single food can only supply of certain essential nutrients, people in order to get the full nutritional needs, it is necessary to eat many kinds of food at the same time, more extensive recipes, dietary treatment will quite complicated. Using food fortification can overcome these complex dietary treatment.

(5) meet the special needs of military occupation and mines, high temperature, low temperature operation and can lead to some staff members engaged in occupational disease due to the special working conditions, require high energy, a special high-nutrition food. And every kind of work for certain nutrients have special needs. Thus these fortified foods is extremely important, it has gradually been widely used. Some other meaning enhancer strengthening can improve the sensory quality of food preservation and improvement of the performance of the food. Such as vitamin E, lecithin, vitamin C both food major enhancer, it is a good antioxidant.

Such as military rations (protein: fat: carbohydrates = 1: 0.7: 4, B1 = 0.6 ~ 1mg / KJ, C = 18 ~ 25mg / kJ, B2 = 3mg / kJ); pilots; prevention of occupational diseases.

6, the effectiveness of vitamins and amino acids when exposed to heat, light or oxygen, very easy to damage and loss, not added at high temperature and pressure processed foods. The trace elements iron and calcium and phytic acid can combine and accelerate the oxidation of fats and vitamins, it should not be directly added to the juice and candy. Therefore, how to maintain the effectiveness of the enhancer is fortifier key issues.

Factors that influence the effectiveness of the enhancer

1. Food composition (acids, bases, oxidizers, reducing agents, etc.);

2. The nature of enhancer (solubility, stability) and add methods (in what section is added, etc.);

3. The food processing conditions (high temperature);

4. Food Consumption before storage conditions (light, heat, oxygen, etc.);

5. The method of eating food.

Measures to ensure the effectiveness of the enhancer

Packaging (vacuum, nitrogen), storage conditions to take measures in processing conditions (moderate) and (cool, dark), etc;

Add various stabilizers: with a chelating agent or an antioxidant protection as a means to reduce the loss enhancer, these stabilizers have a single compound such as EDTA and lecithin, there are natural substances such as cooking oil and mung bean powder.

Nutrition supplements developed rapidly, there will be a lot of a nutrient enhancer products. Calcium, for example, there are calcium gluconate, calcium hydrogen phosphate and other synthetic supplements. There are other natural organisms, such as bone meal products, egg shells and shells made of.

7, pay attention to strengthening food items is very complex work, the use of supplements must pay attention to the following points:

(A) strictly enforce the "fortifier use of health standards" and "nutrition fortifier health management approach."

(Ii) adding enhancer may destroy the balance between the necessary nutrients.

(Iii) adding enhancer in the normal process and is stable under normal storage conditions.

(Iv) strengthen the object is the best popular, daily consumption of food and milk the main staple food, spices and so on. Product should use to guide, protect consumers from eating due fashion or prejudice or excessive intake, in order to prevent the risk of side effects and even poisoning.

(E) food processing, food is not necessary to originally lacking certain nutrients and losses during processing are carried out to strengthen the supplement, up to determine whether the need to strengthen the food nutrients, such as prior diet survey local residents on the basis of a comprehensive and nutritional status.

(Vi) in food supplements for a particular issue to strengthen, and it does not indicate a real proper nutrition, so the use of this product should be targeted, be very careful.

(Vii) enhancer not affect food color, smell, taste, shape, reduce food quality.

(Viii) The results showed that a large number of clinical trials, in addition to lack of Han make up what the use of supplements, the more important in a balanced manner fortifier supplement good.

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